Diabetes Insipidus is a rare condition characterized by the body producing too much urine. It occurs when the body has an issue making and using vasopressin or antidiuretic hormone (ADH). People diagnosed with diabetes insipidus often pee large amounts of urine and are constantly thirsty hence always drinking large volumes of water.

If you have Diabetes Insipidus and do not take enough fluid to replace the urine, you will end up dehydrated, which can be life-threatening. Diabetes Insipidus is a severe health condition that requires urgent medical attention.

What Are the Signs and Symptoms of Diabetes Insipidus?

The main signs and symptoms include:

  • Needing to pee all the time, including during the night
  • Passing large volumes of light-coloured urine
  • Feeling thirsty often and drinking liquid often

Most people often produce 1 to 3 quarts of urine throughout the day, but people with diabetes insipidus can produce up to 20 quartzes daily. If the condition is not treated and the person stops taking fluids, it can easily lead to dehydration.

Symptoms of dehydration include:

  • Feeling tired
  • Feeling lightheaded and dizzy
  • Having dry lips, mouth and eyes
  • Difficulty in getting done with simple tasks
  • Fainting
  • Nausea

If you experience frequent urination and extreme thirst, you must visit your doctor as soon as possible. It is also important to note that Diabetes Insipidus is not the only condition that could cause the above symptoms. Frequent urination and thirst are huge indicators that the body is not working correctly, and you will need a health professional to determine the cause and recommend treatment.

How Is Diabetes Insipidus Detected or Diagnosed?

Diagnosing diabetes insipidus involves several tests to rule out the condition. The diagnosis is also used to determine the type of diabetes insipidus and its cause. These tests include:

Water Deprivation Test: This is the simplest and most reliable method of diagnosing the condition. If your health provider orders this test, they will ensure that you are in constant supervision because it causes dehydration. The test involves not drinking any liquid for several hours to observe how the body will respond. If you have Diabetes Insipidus, you will continue to pee large amounts of light-coloured urine when in normal conditions, you would pee small amounts of concentrated urine.

Other tests your healthcare provider may order to rule out other conditions include:

  • Blood test to check vasopressin or ADH levels
  • Blood test to check your blood sugar levels to rule out diabetes mellitus
  • Urinalysis to check the concentration of your urine or to check for ketones which is an indicator of diabetes mellitus
  • Imaging tests such as an MRI to see if there are any issues with the hypothalamus or pituitary gland

What at The Different Types of Diabetes Insipidus?

Here are the different types of diabetes insipidus and their causes:

  • Nephrogenic diabetes insipidus: This type occurs when your pituitary gland produces enough ADH, but your kidneys do not respond well and cannot retain water.
  • Central Diabetes insipidus occurs when the body does not produce enough ADH. The hypothalamus produces ADH, but the pituitary gland stores it and releases it when needed. You can develop central diabetes insipidus if the hypothalamus or the pituitary glands is damaged.
  • Gestational diabetes insipidus: This condition is rare but often happens during pregnancy. It occurs when the placenta makes too many enzymes to break down ADH. Mothers pregnant with more than one child are likely to develop the condition because they are likely to have more placenta issues.
  • Dipsogenic diabetes insipidus: This occurs when you have an issue with the hypothalamus that is not related to the production of ADH, causing you to feel thirstier and drink more water hence peeing more often than usual.

Diabetes Insipidus Treatment

In most patients’ diabetes, insipidus cannot be cured, but it can be managed with medication. The treatment is administered depending on the type the patient.

However, Desmopressin is the first line of treatment for central diabetes insipidus, and it works like ADH. You can take it as a pill, injection or nasal spray. Medical professionals also administer desmopressin to treat gestational diabetes.

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